106 PROTOTHERIA — MONOTREMATA " CHAP. the latter are only known from very fragmentary remains, which are not sufficient to determine the systematic position of the animals of which they are fragments, I have not thought it worth while to attempt a serious definition of the order Multituberculata. I have introduced a short account of the principal facts which are known concerning the creatures grouped together under this name into the historical sketch of the progress of mammalian life In Chapter IV. As to the Monotremata, there Is no question that they are entitled to rank In a group equivalent to that including all other mammals of which we have sufficient knowledge to construct a classificatory scheme. There have been. Indeed, naturalists, such as Meckel, who would altogether deny the mammalian rank of these creatures. The Monotremata or Ornithodelphia may be thus defined:— Mammalia with no teats, but with a temporary pouch In. which the young are hatched, or to which they are transferred after hatching, and into which open the ducts of the mammary glands. An anterior abdominal vein, or at least the membrane supporting it, persists throughout the abdominal cavity. Heart with an incomplete and largely fleshy right auriculo-ventricular valve. Brain without a corpus callosum. Shoulder girdle with a large coracoid reaching the sternum ; clavicles and an inter- clavicle present. There are " marsupial" or epipubic bones attached to the pelvis. "Vertebrae with no epiphyses for the most part. Ribs with only eapitulum. and no tuberculum. Mammary glands of the sudoriparous and not the sebaceous type of epidermic gland.1 Oviparous, with a large-yolked and ineroblastic ovum, enclosed within a follicle of two rows of cells. To call these animals Mammalia is of course an abuse of the meaning of that word In one sense, but it is not in another; since the pouch of these Monotremes is, as has been explained elsewhere (p. 16), the real equivalent of a teat, and not of the pouch of the Marsupials. The most salient characteristic of this group of mammals in the estimation of their position in the vertebrate series is not so much the fact that they are oviparous as that the eggs are large-yolked, and develop therefore, so far as regards their early stages, after the fashion of the egg of a reptile. The laying 1 Gtegenbaur, Zur J£enn(ni$s d&r Mammarorgane der Movwlremevi, Leipzig, 1886.